OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the rate of emergency department use among the elderly and examined whether that use is reduced if the patient has a principal-care physician. METHODS: The Health Care Financing Administration's National Claims History File was used to study emergency department use by Medicare patients older than 65 years in Washington State during 1994. RESULTS: A total of 18.1% of patients had 1 or more emergency department visits during the study year; the rate increased with age and illness severity. Patients with principal-care physicians were much less likely to use the emergency department for every category of disease severity. After case mix, Medicaid eligibility, and rural/urban residence were controlled for, the odds ratio for having any emergency department visit was 0.47 for patients with a generalist principal-care physician and 0.58 for patients with a specialist principal-care physician. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of emergency department use among the elderly is substantial, and most visits are for serious medical problems. The presence of a continuous relationship with a physician--regardless of specialty--may reduce emergency department use.

10.2105/AJPH.91.11.1815

βqj=γq0+γq1Wj+uqj,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.92.1.59

AF=p(RR-1)p(RR-1)+1

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.92.11.1773

Si**=βxsi+si,Si=1ifSi**>0,0otherwise

----------------------------------------

Ci**=βxci+ci,Ci=1ifCi**>0,0otherwise,

----------------------------------------

Prob(P=1)/x=ϕ(βx)β,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.92.12.1921

LnHomiciderate=α+β1(LnAlcoholmortalityrate)+β2(LnPoverty)+

----------------------------------------

β3(LnGinicoefficient)+β4(LnUnemployment)+

----------------------------------------

β5(LnMobility)+β6(LnSingle-parenthouseholds)

----------------------------------------

+β7(LnPopulationdiversity)+β8(LnPercentageurban)+β9(LnPercentagemale

----------------------------------------

aged25to54years)+β10(Regionaldummyvariable)+ε

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.92.2.288

EFFECT=ΔHb(Final-Initial)EXPT-ΔHb(Final-Initial)COMP

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.92.3.420

RPRSf=inCixTi

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.92.5.799

Yi=α+β1Pi+β2Xi+εi

----------------------------------------

(Yij-Yj**)=β1(Pij-P*j)+β2(Xij-X*j)+(εij-εj*j).

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.11.1820

logit(pijk=xijkβ+ujk+vk

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.11.1844

10.2105/AJPH.93.12.2055

AF=(OR-1)/OR,

----------------------------------------

AFT=PE(OR-1)/OR=PE(AF).

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.12.2099

ψijk=μ+αiAge+βjPeriod+YkCohort+eijk

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.12.2124

Eadj=E/S0.73.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.4.635

s=1na=1m(t·f·n·p),

----------------------------------------

s=1n

----------------------------------------

a=1m

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.6.943

C=Qm(θα1-α1)+Qw(θα2-α2)+Qmsm(θα3-α3),

----------------------------------------

Qm=(Nw1-U)(1-λw)(1S)[Hm(1-Δhw)]+(Nm1-U)(1-λm)(1S)[hm(1-ΔHw)],

----------------------------------------

Qw=(Nm1-U)(1-λm)(1S)[Hw(1-Δhm)]+(Nw1-U)(1-λw)(1S)[hw(1-ΔHm)],

----------------------------------------

Qmsm=(Nm1-U)(λm)(1S)[Hmsm(1-Δhmsm)]+(hmsm)1-ΔHmsm)],

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1376-a

logit(Ppreg)=β0+βplanned×Iplanned+βinfected×Iinfected

----------------------------------------

+β(planned×infected)×I(planned×infected),

----------------------------------------

βˆinfected=ln(ORˆinfected)=ln(3.0)=1.0986,

----------------------------------------

βˆplanned=ln(ORˆplanned)=ln(1.7)=0.5306,

----------------------------------------

βˆ(planned×infected)=ln(ORˆ(planned×infected))=ln(0.1)=-2.3026.

----------------------------------------

ORˆ1=Oddsfor(Iplanned=0andIinfected=1)Oddsfor(Iplanned=0andIinfected=0)=exp(βˆinfected)=exp(1.0986)=3.0.

----------------------------------------

ORˆ2=Oddsfor(Iplanned=1andIinfected=1)Oddsfor(Iplanned=1andIinfected=0)

----------------------------------------

=exp(βˆinfected+βˆ(planned×infected))=exp(1.0986-2.3026)=0.3.

----------------------------------------

ORˆ3=Oddsfor(Iplanned=1andIinfected=0)Oddsfor(Iplanned=0andIinfected=0)=exp(βˆplanned)=exp(0.5306)=1.7.

----------------------------------------

ORˆ4=Oddsfor(Iplanned=1andIinfected=1)Oddsfor(Iplanned=0andIinfected=1)

----------------------------------------

=exp(βˆplanned+βˆ(planned×infected))=exp(0.5306-2.3026)=0.17.

----------------------------------------

ORˆ5=Oddsfor(Iplanned=1andIinfected=1)Oddsfor(Iplanned=0andIinfected=0)

----------------------------------------

=exp(βˆplanned+βˆinfected+βˆ(planned×infected))=exp(0.5306+1.0986-2.3026)=0.51.

----------------------------------------

βˆinfected=ln(ORˆinfected)=ln(1.6)=0.47,

----------------------------------------

βˆplanned=ln(ORˆplanned)=ln(1.2)=0.1823,

----------------------------------------

βˆ(planned×infected)=ln(ORˆ(planned×infected))=ln(0.5)=-0.6931,

----------------------------------------

ORˆ1=1.6,ORˆ2=0.80,ORˆ3=1.2,ORˆ4=0.60,andORˆ5=0.47.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1478

Pniod=exp(Vniod)/[jCnodexp(Vnjod)],Vniod=f(Iod,PHn,BEo,BEd)

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1583

Ai=jmjαSjλ/dijβ,

----------------------------------------

Att=jAj×Wj,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.1.128

log(pijk1-pijk)=β0+i=1pαixijk+j=1qβjyjk+k-1rγkzk+vk+ujk

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.11.2004

yjt=αt+Xjtβ+Ejtγ+Cj+εjt

----------------------------------------

yjt=αt+Xjtβ+Ejtγ+Cj+Cj**T+εjt

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.2.308

Ac=Ne×[(RR-1)/RR],

----------------------------------------

RR=OR/[(1-p)+(OR×p)],

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.2.314

ETS2000-ETS1992=Σβ2000X2000

----------------------------------------

-Σβ1992X1992=Σβ1992(X2000-X1992)

----------------------------------------

+ΣX2000(β2000-β1992)

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.3.446

Yij=B0j+B1jFemaleij+B2-5jRaceij+B6jESLij+B7-9jGradeij+eij

----------------------------------------

B0j=G00+G01Treatmentj+U0j

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.3.484

Pr(y=2)Pr(y=1)=eXβ(2),

----------------------------------------

RRR=eβ1(2)(2)x1+...+βi(2)(2)(xi+1)+...+βk(2)(2)xkeβ1(2)(2)x1+...+βi(2)(2)xi+...+βk(2)(2)xk,=eβi(2)(2)

----------------------------------------

βi(2)(2)

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.4.568

K(ATTRIB)={K(B)(CFRS(A)/CFRS(B))}-K(B),

----------------------------------------

K(A)/K(B)=V(A)44/V(B)44

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.4.582

ΔC=NnewRnew+NoldRold+old.

----------------------------------------

ΔC(T)=udgSΔC(T,S,g,d,u),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.6.1043

Prob(Hist=1)=Φ(Xistβ1+Astβ2+νt),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.7.1174

Rcv=(T/M)+1-T

----------------------------------------

Mcv=T/(R-1+T)

----------------------------------------

Tcv=[M×(R-1)]/(1-M)

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.8.1341

pn=f{1-(1-b)[1-Πj=1a(1-pn-j)]-b[1-Πk=1i(1-pn-k)]},

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.9.1486

PAF=P(E)×(RR-1)/[1+P(E)×(RR-1)]

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.9.1531

Log(OR)=a+b1×xp+b2×xp×log(x),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.94.9.1574

SIi=50((S%i-D%i)+1),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.054700

Ŷ=1-e(-η):Y~binomial,

----------------------------------------

whereη=αgae+dβdgaeχd

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.050617

μ=i=1npiyi,

----------------------------------------

E=(NN-1)×[(1μ)i=2nj=1i-1pi|yi-yj|pj],

----------------------------------------

SDS=i=1npi(yi-μ)2.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.043885

pi(RRi-1)/[1+pi(RRi-1)],

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.037705

ηtijk=πojk+πljkdtjk+π2jkd2tjk+αi

----------------------------------------

π0jk=μ+Xjkβ+Wkγ

----------------------------------------

π1jk=μ1+Xjkβ1+Wkγ1

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2003.031179

AttributableFraction=pe(RR-1)/[pe(RR-1)+1].

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.042150

dij=|xi-xj|+|yi-yj|

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.046284

{(xref)±1.96(sref)},

----------------------------------------

{(xi)±3.3[(sref22+si22)0.5-sref]},

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.053710

HbA1c=(60.16+meanglucose)/30.9

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.057422

Yijk=πijk+εijkZijk

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.050872

logit(pij)=xijβ+uj,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.045823

Deathi=Ziβ+m(BMIi)+εi

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547

Ln[Pr(y=1x)/1-Pr(y=1x)]=β0+β1x1+β2x2+...βnxn+ε

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.083352

Adstockt=Adt+λAd(t-1)+λ2Ad(t-2)+λ3Ad(t-3)

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.064253

Performancei,j=βSystemi,j+δCommunityi,j+μj+εi,j

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.048132

logλi=β0+β1xi1+β2xi2+...+βkxik+σε+log(popi)

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.060103

logit(πijklm)=log[πijklm(1-πijklm)]=β0+β(X)+u0jklm+v0klm+f0lm+g0m.

----------------------------------------

AOR-UORUOR-1×100.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.049312

L1=ijNij1N++1Rij1

----------------------------------------

L2=ijNij2N++2Rij2

----------------------------------------

L2-L1=ijNij1N++1(Rij2-Rij1)+ijRij2(Nij2N++2-Nij1N++1)

----------------------------------------

ijNij1N++1Rij2

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.064543

[CES-D2-CES-D1]=α+age1+education1+income1+discrimination1+[discrimination2-discrimination1]+CES-D1+ε(a)

----------------------------------------

[GH2-GH1]j=α+age1+education1+income1+discrimination1+[discrimi-nation2-discrimination1]+GH1+ε(b)

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.056929

logit(mat)=s(a)+s(t)+eat,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.069617

ln(Consumptiont)=αConsumptiont-1ln(Consumptiont-1)+βPriceln(Pricet)+δSocialUnacceptabilityln(SocialUnacceptability).

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2004.050575

CostperVisit=$89.69-$12.986ln

----------------------------------------

(CurrentClientCount),

----------------------------------------

CostperDay=$206.79-$39.32ln

----------------------------------------

(CurrentClientCount),

----------------------------------------

ln(TotalAnnualCost)=9.628+0.649ln

----------------------------------------

(CurrentClientCount),

----------------------------------------

TotalAnnualCost=$321637+$13212

----------------------------------------

(CurrentClientCount),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.078451

Immunizationi,t=β0+β1317fundingi,t-1+γXi,t-1+θijurisdiction+εi,t

----------------------------------------

Log[(vaccinationcoveragei,t)/(1-vaccinationcoveragei,t)]=β0+β1317Fundingi,t-1+β2povertyi,t-1+β35×Pi,t-1+β4unemploymenti,t-1+β5NOHIi,t-1+θijurisdiction+λjurisdiction×timei,t+τjurisdiction×timei,t2i,t+εi,t

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.068874

x=15Mxex/(1-px)

----------------------------------------

x=15Dx·Lx

----------------------------------------

x=15(HAx-HBx)·Px

----------------------------------------

x=15QMx+Hx·Yx

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2003.035378

MUS=(PUSNMˆN+PUSHMˆH)/(PUSN+PUSH)

----------------------------------------

MTX=(PTXNMˆN+PTXHMˆH)/(PTXN+PTXH)

----------------------------------------

MˆH=(PTXNDUS-PUSNDTX)/(PUSHPTXN-PUSNPTXH)ifPUSHPTXNPUSNPTXH

----------------------------------------

MˆN=(DUS-PUSHMˆH)/PUSNifPUSN

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.090399

(%intervention-post_%intervention-pre)_(%comparison-post_%comparison-pre).

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.089169

log(SA2002/SA1995)log(SA2002/SA1995)+log[(CRI2002)/(CRI1995)]×100,

----------------------------------------

log[(CRI2002)/(CRI1995)]log(SA2002/SA1995)+log[(CRI2002)/(CRI1995)]×100.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.105478

C=cp+(ch×pg)+(cc×pc),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.102947

H=(P/100000)×M×ERC,

----------------------------------------

ERC=exp(bΔTave)-1,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.088732

5q0=1-(1-1q0)(1-4q1).

----------------------------------------

4q1=1-EXP(-4×4m1)×1000

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.074542

i=1N[xi/X][xi/ti]

----------------------------------------

{[i=1N(xiai/X)]/[i=1n(yiai/Y)]-1}{[i=1n1(tiai/T1)]/[i=n2n(tiai/T2)]-1}

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.083873

RATEit=β0+k=1nβkχkit+μi+λt+eit,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.080754

BMImtcs=α0cs+α1csKindergartentcs+α2csSummertcs+α3csFirstGradetcs+emtcs.

----------------------------------------

BMImtcs=Exposurestcsαcs+emtcs,

----------------------------------------

αcs=γ0+bs+ac,

----------------------------------------

αcs=γ0+γ1Xcs+bs+ac.

----------------------------------------

BMImtcs=Exposurestcs(γ0+γ1Xcs+bs+ac)+emtcs.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.063644

Y2=a+b1Y1+b2Tx+b3D1+b4D2+e,

----------------------------------------

D2=-1+-11Tx+-12D1+-13Y1+e1and

----------------------------------------

Y2=-2+-21Tx+-22D1+-23D2+-24Y1+e2,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.071472

log(ϕij1-ϕij)=β0j+β1j(LatForeignBorn)ij+β2j(LatUSborn)ij+β3j(Black)ij+β4j(OtherRace)ij+q=5QβqjXqij

----------------------------------------

β0j=γ00+γ01(ConPov)j+γ02(RStab)j+γ03(PercentForBorn)j+γ04(CollEff)j+γ05(SocIntEx)j+u0j

----------------------------------------

β1j=γ10+γ11(PercentForBorn)j+γ12(CollEff)j+γ13(SocIntEx)j+u1j

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.087551

log(hiv)=offset[log(popyr,i,j)]+b0+b1(yr-20001)+b2I(yr>2002)+b3I(yr>2003)+b4iagei+b5jracej+ε,

----------------------------------------

log(hiv)=offset(log(popyr,i,j))+b0+b1(yr-20001)+b4iagei+b5jracej+b6i(yr>2001)×agei+b7ijagei×racej+ε;i=1,...,11;j=1,2,3.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.074609

Yti=π0i+π1ia1ti+π2ia21ti+π3ia2ti+π4ia22ti+...+πPiaPPti+eti.

----------------------------------------

πpi=bp0+q=1QpbpqXqi+rpi,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.071522

Yijk=πijk+εijkZijk,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.093708

OverallMortalityDifference=i((PBi-PWi)*(RBi+RWi2)+(RBi-RWi)*(PBi+PWi2)),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.084343

P(Ob)=P(ObS)P(S)+P(ObN)(1-P[S]),

----------------------------------------

P(Ob*)=P(ObS)P(S*)+P(ObN)(1-P[S*]),

----------------------------------------

P(Ob)-P(Ob*)=(P[S*]-P[S])(P[ObS]-P[ObN])

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.092692

FFM=0.61×H2÷R+0.25×W+1.31

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.093195

ln(E[Yt])=B+B1×t+B2×sin(2πt/T)+B3×cos(2πt/T)+B4×Xt,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.087320

ID={(i|Qri-Qr5|/I)/Qr5}×100,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.063669

1ni=1nsiti=d0.1,0.15.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.079418

BMR=655+(9.6×weightinkilograms)+(1.8×heightincentimeters)-(4.7×ageinyears)

----------------------------------------

Y=Xβ+Zγ+ε,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.095844

[D÷(D+S)]×100,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.114769

PD=[(kg-D)/kg]×100%

----------------------------------------

U=β0+β1age+β2age2+β3BMI+β4PD+β5PD2+β6C+e,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.113738

πijkl:yijkl~Bernoulli(1,πijkl)

----------------------------------------

logit(πijkl)=log[πijkl/(1-πijkl)]=β0+βX+u0jkl+v0kl+f0l

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.110080

Ec=(Pt2/Pt1)Ht1,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.114454

h(t)=exp{a+bixi+γt},

----------------------------------------

h(t)=lims0P(t,t+s)/s,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.123075

RRR(healthlimitation)=probability[pre-contemplation]/probability[maintenance]withahealthlimitation.orprobability[precontemplation]/probability[maintenance]withoutahealthlimitation=1.83;95%CI=1.29,2.59.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.120253

P(OR-1)/1+P(OR-1),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.099416

Hi(t)=λ0(t)exp{β1xi1++βkxik}

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.116020

eGFR(mL/min/1.73m2)=186.3×(serumcreatinine-1.154)×(age-0.203)×(0.742iffemaleand1.21ifBlack).

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.127563

([Y1+Y2+Y3+Y4+Y5+Y6+Y7+Y8]-[Y9+Y10+Y11+Y12+Y13+Y14+Y15+Y16])÷16,

----------------------------------------

([Y1+Y2+Y3+Y4+Y13+Y14+Y15+Y16]-[Y5+Y6+Y7+Y8+Y9+Y10+Y11+Y12])÷16,

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.124446

Yt(u)-Yc(u),

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610

[(1/σi22)/inσi22]×100.

----------------------------------------

PFE=1-RR.

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.127027

1+(m-1)ρ

----------------------------------------

1+(m1-1)ρ1

----------------------------------------

1+(m2-1)ρ2

----------------------------------------

σˆ2Δ=2*2(σˆ2m(1-rˆyy(m))+mσˆ2g(1-rˆyy(g))mg)

----------------------------------------

σˆ2Δ=2(σˆ2m(1-rˆ2yy(m))+mσˆ2g(1-rˆ2yy(g))mg)

----------------------------------------

σˆ2Δ2=(2σˆ2m(1-rˆyy(m))+mσˆ2gmg)

----------------------------------------

σˆ2Δ=(2σˆ2m(1-rˆ2yy(m))+mσˆ2gmg)

----------------------------------------

σˆ2Δ2=(σˆ2m(1-rˆyy(m))N1+σˆ2m(1-rˆyy(m))+mσˆ2gN2)

----------------------------------------

(σˆ2Δ=(σˆ2m(1-rˆ2yy(m))N1+σˆ2m(1-rˆ2yy(m))+1/2mσˆ2gN2)

----------------------------------------

Δˆ=σˆ2Δ(tcritical:α/2+tcritical:β)2

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2006.108233

Yij=u0i(1)(1)+b1(1)Xij+eij(1)(1),

----------------------------------------

Yij=u0i(2)+b1(2)Xij+b2(2)(2)X¯i+eij(2)(2)

----------------------------------------

Yij-Yik=b1(3)(3)(Xij-Xij)+eij(3)(3).

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2005.083600

Nest=HOPEcountinstratumγstratum

----------------------------------------

10.2105/AJPH.2007.129924

[P×(RR-1)]/[(1+P)×(RR-1)],

----------------------------------------

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ARTICLE CITATION

“The effect of the doctor-patient relationship on emergency department use among the elderly”, American Journal of Public Health 90, no. 1 (January 1, 2000): pp. 97-102.

https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.90.1.97

PMID: 10630144