We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity).
Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities.
There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues.
- At the time of this study, Joseph G. L. Lee, Shyanika W. Rose, and Kurt M. Ribisl were with the Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Lisa Henriksen is with the Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA. Shyanika W. Rose was also with the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina and the Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies, Legacy, Washington, DC. Sarah Moreland-Russell is with the Center for Public Health Systems Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. Kurt M. Ribisl is also with the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.